I will give you information about what a computer network is and what types of networks are commonly used. It is often not possible to apply and use the information we have learned theoretically in business life. However, the types of networks and basic definitions that I will talk about will give you the opportunity to create case-specific solutions.
A computer network, as the name implies, is basically a transmission medium created to communicate between computers and create a sharing environment. Depending on the variety of needs, it can reach two to thousands of computers. The network established between two computers is called ad hoc, while networks covering kilometers of distance are called WAN (Wide Area Network).
Computer networks can be classified as closed or open networks. Closed networks are networks that do not have Internet access and open networks are those with Internet access. In general, domain, file sharing, e-mail, remote desktop, and so on in a computer network. services.
Therefore, before establishing a network, the needs should be determined very well and a very good design should be done. Now let's get acquainted with the types of computer networks in order.
When we subject the networks to scientific classification, we encounter two types of networks: LAN and WAN. PAN, MAN, SAN, HAN, etc. all types of networks that we will explain below are detailed in these two main network classification. In order to avoid confusion of meaning, I made a classification from the narrowest field type to the broadest field.
1. PAN-Personal Area Network:
PAN is a small area network that is established between various devices that the user can access. PAN networks 10 m. It is used to establish wired or wireless communication between PC, printer and mobile devices.
2. HAN-Home Area Network:
A small-scale LAN network used in a home environment. The difference from PAN is that the connections used in PAN installation can be USB, Bluetooth, Infrared, Ethernet. The basic transmission protocol for HAN connections is Ethernet. In the HAN network, the Internet connection provided by the ISP over DSL is shared.
3. LAN-Local Area Network:
LAN is the most common type of network established in a limited area at school, at work, or at home. In LAN networks where wired or wireless transmission environment is used, all services used in the network can be installed. LAN networks access the Internet via WAN. A typical LAN network is 2 km. It does not cover locations farther than distance. Communication is done via layer-3 switches.
10/100 Mbps Ethernet is used between devices, while a 1/10 Gbps Ethernet connection is used on the node switch. LAN requires a router to connect to WAN networks. For this reason, we can consider each leg of the Router as a LAN.
4. SAN-Storage Area Network:
Clustered SAN devices, cassette units, backup devices connected to the existing LAN to access the board is a kind of network. With the decrease in SAN prices after the 2000s, the SAN network established to access remote data management centers is accessed through servers rather than local computers and users are provided with file server service. SAN networks are widely used in data centers.
5. CAN-Campus Area Network:
It is a kind of network which is established by using CAT-5/6 type cable as the transmission medium by means of switches and routers in scientific-educational institutions. (Eg HUNET)
6. MAN-Metropolitan Area Network:
MAN can be defined as a wide-area LAN. If the LAN network we build is spread across a city or a campus network is very large, it can be considered MAN. However, communication is still done within local area network rules.
7. WAN-Wide Area Network:
Basically PAN, HAN, MAN can be evaluated as LANs. LAN networks communicate with each other through WAN networks. The WAN network is spread over a wide area and provides the transmission medium using multiple types of connections. Unlike LAN, WAN technologies use layer-3, 2 to transmit. Therefore, it is more difficult to install and troubleshoot than LAN networks.
8. VPN-Virtual Private Network:
A VPN is a type of network that is created by using shared transmission environments (the Internet) instead of physical transmission environments. There is a more complex connection scheme than point-to-point transmissions. Encrypted and secure communication is provided under the SLA (service agreement) established between the VPN service provider and the users.
9. GAN-Global Area Network:
GAN is established by establishing a comprehensive network using satellite, wireless and LANs to provide mobile connectivity. A type of network used at the ISP level.
Network Types According to Corporate Perspective:
Closed networks controlled by a single administrative center are called Intranets. It operates on the intranet network layer (layer-3) and the management center determines the access capabilities of the users. Mostly intranets with security concerns are installed without an Internet connection. Most have a single web server and web access is limited.
Open networks under the control of a single headquarters are called Intranets. When the company's third-party applications have access to the Internet, it becomes an intranet extranet.
The internet mentioned here should not be confused with the Internet. It occurs when more than one computer network connects and communicates with each other. The Internet is also the internet. It is a complex network structure formed by connecting WANs with each other.
4. Internet (The Internet):
The Internet is the biggest example of the internet. It can also be deceived as a network that surrounds the world.
It is a network that uses the Internet infrastructure, which can be accessed through feature-specific software. It uses complex algorithms (F2F) based on the logic that users who install and use the software in response to the censorship environment created by the administrations in the Internet environment will redirect each other's packets according to the P2P logic. Based on the logic of providing anonymity, Darknet does not use standard protocols and ports (Blackbelt, Tor Project).