Understanding Stimulation, Objectives, Benefits and According to Experts
The term growth and development actually includes two events that are different in nature, but are interrelated and difficult to separate, namely growth and development. And for the achievement of optimal growth and development depends on a person's biological potential which is the result of the interaction of various interrelated factors, namely genetic factors, bio-physico-psycho-social environment and behavior. A unique process and different end results that give each child its own characteristics.
Stimulation is stimulation that is carried out since a new baby (even preferably in the womb) is carried out every day, to stimulate all the sensory systems (hearing, vision, touch, smell, smell). In addition it must also stimulate rough and smooth motion of the feet, hands and fingers, encourage communication, and stimulate feelings that delight babies and children.
Stimulation is important in children's growth and development. The results showed that children who lack love and lack of stimulation will experience obstacles in their growth and development as well as difficulties in interacting with others. Stimulation given to children during the first three years ( golden age ) will provide an enormous influence on the development of the brain and become the basis for forming life to come.
The earlier the stimulation provided, the better the child's development. The more stimulation provided, the child's knowledge will become broad so that the child's development is more optimal. It also said that the brain tissue of children who get a lot of stimulation will develop reaching 80% at the age of 3 years. Conversely, if the child has never been given stimulation, the brain tissue will shrink so that brain function will decrease. This is what causes children's development to be inhibited
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Stimulation According to Experts
- According to (Dr. Kusnandi Rusmi, Sp.A (k) MM, 2010), Stimulation is an attempt by parents or family to invite children to play in an atmosphere full of joy and affection. These play activities and the atmosphere of love are important in order to stimulate the entire sensory system, train the motoric and gross abilities, communication skills and feelings of the child's mind. As explained by experts and consultants growth and development of children. Stimulation or early stimulation is one of the external factors that is very important in determining children's intelligence. In addition to stimulation, there are other external factors that influence the intelligence of a child, namely the quality of nutritional intake, proper parenting and love for children.
According to (Dinkes, 2009), parents must always provide stimulation / stimulation to children in all aspects of development both gross and fine motor, language and social personal. This stimulation must be given routinely and continuously with love, playing methods and others. So that the child's development will run optimally. Lack of stimulation from parents can lead to delays in the development of children, therefore parents or caregivers must be given an explanation of ways to do stimulation to children.
According to Siswono, 2004 stimulation is an attempt to stimulate children to introduce new knowledge or skills which is very important in efforts to increase children's intelligence. Stimulation can be done on children since the baby is still a fetus, because the fetus is not a passive creature. In the womb the fetus is able to breathe, kick, stretch, move, swallow, suck the thumb, and others.
According to Suherman, 2000 Stimulation was also carried out by parents (family) every chance or everyday. Stimulation is adjusted to the age and principle of stimulation.
- According to Dr. Soedjatmiko, SpA (K), MSi, a specialist doctor and development consultant, early stimulation is a stimulation to play since the newborn baby. Stimulation is believed to affect growth, which is important for the speed of learning and memory.
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Purpose and Stimulation Stage
The Purpose of Stimulation in Children
The purpose of the action to provide stimulation to the child is to help the child achieve the optimal level of development or as expected. These actions include various activities to stimulate child development, such as exercise, speaking, thinking, independence and socialization. Stimulation is carried out by parents and family every chance or day, periodically and continuously. Stimulation is adjusted to the age and principle of stimulation (Suherman, 2000).
The principles of stimulation are as follows:
- Stimulation is based on love and affection.
- Always show good attitudes and behavior, because children will imitate the behavior of those closest to the child.
- Provide stimulation according to the child's age group.
- Perform stimulation by inviting children to play, sing, vary in fun, without coercion and no punishment.
- Perform a gradual and continuous stimulation according to the child's age, towards 4 (four) aspects of the child's basic abilities.
- Use tools or games that are simple, safe and are around the child.
- Give equal opportunities to boys and girls.
- Always give praise if necessary a prize for its success.
Stimulation Stages According to Us he
1. Stages Age 0 - 3 months
Give your child a stimulation that prioritizes a sense of comfort, safe, and fun. You can stimulate it by hugging, holding, looking into the baby's eyes, talking or asking him to smile. Toys that are hung with attractive colors and make sounds are also a pleasant stimulation for your child. Towards the end of the age of 3 months, try to practice on his stomach, supine or roll it to the right and left. Stimulate your child to reach and hold the toy, if his hand is strong enough.
In order for the baby's motor skills to grow and develop optimally, you need to understand the stages of their development and provide stimulation (stimulation) appropriate to the stages of the baby's age. This is important because if there is a delay or disturbance in motor skills can be immediately detected and corrected.
In general, motor development can be divided into two, namely gross motor and fine motor:
- Gross motor is part of motor activity that includes the skills of large muscles, such as crawling, stomach, neck lift and sit.
- Fine motor is a part of motor activity that involves the movement of small muscles, such as taking small objects with thumb and forefinger, drawing and writing.
When a newborn baby is born, it is the baby's body reflexes that work perfectly. Reflex movements are movements that occur automatically, without the baby knowing. Over time, this reflex motion will be replaced with rough motor motion. Some of the reflexes that a baby has are:
The sucking reflex (sucking reflex) The
baby will do the sucking motion when you touch the nipple to the tip of the baby's mouth.
Reflex grasp (palmar grasp reflex)
Your baby will automatically grasp your finger when you offer your index finger.
Neck reflex (tonic neck reflex)
There will be increased muscle strength (tonus) in the arms and legs when your baby turns to one side.
Rooting reflex (rooting reflex)
When your baby's cheek is touched, his mouth will automatically open and turn his face toward the touch.
Moro reflex (Moro reflex)
This reflex is different from other reflexes that are included in the category of motor movement. According to experts, this moro reflex includes emotional reactions arising from the will or awareness of the baby and will disappear by itself in a short time. This moro reflex arises when a baby is startled suddenly or hears a loud noise.
The baby makes reflex movements by arching his back and tilting his head toward the back. Along with this movement, the baby's feet and hands are moved forward. The reaction that lasts for a moment is generally accompanied by a loud cry.
2. Stages Age 3-6 months
Stimulate your child to lie on his stomach, supine, back and forth, and sit. You can add stimulation by inviting him to play "Cilukba". At the age range of 3-6 months most babies have begun to show behavior that invites the exasperation of the beholder, because at that age the physical condition of the baby is supportive to carry out various activities, such as:
- Turning from face down to supine
- Raise the head as high as 900
- Maintain the position of the head remained upright and stable
- Hold a pencil
- Grabbing objects that are within reach
- Hold his own hand
- Trying to broaden views
- Directing his eyes at small objects
- Making a high-pitched happy voice or squealing
- Smile when you see an interesting toy / picture when playing alone.
3. Stages Age 6-9 months
At this age, you can begin to increase stimulation, by training your child's hand to shake hands, sit and stand while holding. It's also important for you to start getting used to reading fairy tales to your baby before bed. in providing stimulation to the baby, there are 4 things that stimulation of the baby really must be considered, namely:
The first is always talk to him , whatever you do invite your baby to talk. Look into his eyes and talk slowly. Babies are listening to the sounds and words you express and the baby is learning to respond.
Second is to let the baby play on the floor , of course the floor must be clean and safe, often put the baby on the floor to stimulate it more freely to move and can control its movements. Do not often carry or put the baby on the cart push. Although it is safe for him, but does not help him develop the muscles of motion.
Third is to provide physical activity, games that use physical use will help the development and work of the muscles of the body. Parents can help, for example, put the baby in a supine position and then move both legs as if making a bicycle pedaling motion. You can also hold the baby upright while we hold his body, then let him do the jumps with his feet or play on the floor by crawling and chasing him.
- Fourth is to give praise, every time a baby shows rapid progress give praise, he must be often and eager to always try and repeat his abilities.
4. Stages Age 9-12 months
During the myrrh period of 9-12 months, my baby has shown several activities:
- Lifting his body to a standing position
- Learn to stand for 30 seconds or hold on to a chair
- Can walk with guided
- Extend arms / body to reach the desired toy
- Hold the pencil tightly
- Insert objects in your mouth
- Repeating the sound heard
- Say 2-3 syllables that are the same without meaning
- Explore around, want to know, want to touch anything
- React to slow or whispering sounds
- It is nice to be invited to play "LIGHT BA"
- Get to know family members, fear of strangers.
From the things that your child can do, then start teaching your child to call mom and dad or mom, dad, brother or sister. You can also train your child to stand up, walk by holding, drinking from a glass, rolling the ball, and playing putting toys into a container.
5. Stages Age 12-18 months
your little one playing together putting together cubes, putting together simple pieces of drawing, inserting and removing small objects from their containers, or playing with dolls. Also teach him how to use cutlery and hold a pencil and then let him scribble on paper with colored pencils. Continue stimulation by practicing walking without holding, walking backwards, climbing stairs, kicking the ball, throwing and catching the ball, taking off pants, understanding and doing simple commands, naming names, and showing objects.
6. Stages Age 18-24 months
At this age begin to assemble your child by asking him to mention, and show body parts such as eyes, nose, ears, and mouth. Also ask him to name the animals, pictures or objects around the house. Try to get your child to talk about their daily activities (eating, drinking, bathing, playing, and so on). He trains he draw lines, wash hands, wear pants, clothes, throw a ball, and jump. In addition, he can train standing balance with one leg alternately, train children to draw circles and triangles, train children to tell what they see, train children about personal hygiene (urinating / defecating in its place), training children to sing.
7. Stages of Age 2-3 years
It's time to teach your child to recognize colors, count objects, use adjectives (big-small, hot-cold, high-low, high-low), draw lines, circles and humans. Also teach how to wear clothes, brush teeth, urinate and defecate in the toilet. Stimulation can also be given by inviting him to practice standing on one leg, mentioning the name of a friend, playing cards, dolls, and cooking, training children to arrange blocks.
8. Stages Age 3 years and above
Stimulation that you can give to your child is more directed at developing cognitive, psychomotor, and language abilities and for school readiness.
Teach him to do gross motor skills such as running, healthy exercise, then also practice fine motor skills such as holding a pencil well, writing, recognizing letters and numbers, simple counting, understanding simple commands, urinating and defecating in the toilet, sharing with friends, and independence . Not only at home, stimulation can also be done in play groups and kindergartens.
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Types and Types of Stimulation
Establish communication with the baby as often as possible, can tell anything to support the knowledge of language and develop his mind, of course, tell stories about light things, invite the child to talk. One example of communicating is:
- Tell us your busy schedule.
Tell aloud what is being done and throw questions for toddlers. "Keep talking, even though it seems silly because toddlers can't answer," Pam Quinn, a speech therapist at the Schwab Rehabilitation Hospital in Chicago, said.
So 'role model'.
If your toddler says "grandchildren" for milk, use the correct pronunciation when you respond, "This is your milk." Develop mastery of the language by adding new words, for example "Susumu is white, very good." This strategy will not only increase the number its vocabulary but also teaches how to combination words. But avoid correcting his words. "Showing the child's mistakes can make him uncomfortable. Even children of that age can begin to feel that whatever they do is always wrong in the eyes of the mother, "Pam said again.
Give toddlers the opportunity to ask and express their needs before you give them. For example, when playing, he rolls the ball and you know he wants you to return the ball to him, just pretend you don't understand, give a confused look on your face and ask, "What should I do?" A pause like this will encourage him to communicate.
Avoid overdoing words or talking in slang or social language that is not understood by toddlers aged 1-2 years. Parents are required to speak in regular sentences and in the correct language, which will help the child understand how to combine words into meaningful sentences.
Invite your baby to communicate by introducing limbs. For example pointing head, shoulders, nose, feet, eyes and so on. Shows illustrated stories, or collections of images of fruits, animals and everyday objects. Practice hand motor movements by making lines, practice washing your own hands, practice throwing balls.
Using Sign Language
Builds trust and enhances interaction. Psychologically the baby will feel closer to the people who communicate. By understanding what the baby is communicating, parents become more aware of the needs that the baby wants at that time.
Encourage communication early. Actually young babies, with imperfect oral coordinating movement, have limited language. Although there are several parameters of language ability that can be assessed by sounds coming out of the mouth or facial mimic and baby's body position. With these limitations, it seems that sign language can be used as an alternative to communication.
Difficulty communicating with children will cause feelings of anxiety and frustration both for children and parents. Often parents do not know the wishes of children, on the contrary the child is difficult to express their desires. Moreover, this confusing expression is accompanied by great crying. With sign language communication gaps can be minimized, ultimately making parents feel more comfortable if the wishes of children can be understood.
According to experts, ideally Mom has creative ways to stimulate children. Sometimes you also run out of ideas. The good news, Alvin N. Eden, MD ., Author of Positive Parenting: Raising Healthy Children from Birth to Three Years , gives some recommendations on what tools you need to have to stimulate the 2-3 years optimally. Here are some of them:
- Tricycle. Teach the child to pedal, also direct the handlebars. Of course accompany him always when trying.
- Wheelbarrow. Children can bring toys to be taken to another room (or to be cleaned). Don't forget to make sure the cart is clean.
- Climbing equipment, can be a ladder, fence, safety rope, etc. Of course you have to watch when the child is playing climbing, not then forbid it altogether.
- Tools and workbench. When a child tries to hammer a toy nail or install a screw, he is actually honing his fine motor skills.
Educational game tool is a game tool that can optimize children's development, adjusted for their age and level of development. The following are examples of games on child stimulation:
Smiling, kissing, and sound (0-3 months)
In this very early period, excitatory vision, touch, kissing, and listening are important for infant brain development or cognition. Stimulation is like landing a kiss on the forehead, cheeks, eyes, or other body parts, stroking, giving the most beautiful smile, talking, and listening to music, helping the baby learn a sense of sensations, sensations. As a result, babies are able to give a smile at the age of 6 or 8 weeks. Baby's brain is invited to learn to interpret various things such as facial expressions or sounds and help develop the size of the brain twice. Babies will reduce attention to repetitive stimuli and will increase their attention when the stimuli change.
Playing games and guessing (Ages 3-6 months).
At the age of 4 months, babies begin to recognize and undergo routines such as waking, sleeping, or eating. You can introduce other routines that help the development of the brain such as participating in activities while playing at the gym or motor activities. This activity helps the baby learn cause and effect, for example he can reach the toy that dangles on it when he sits and stretches his arms up. In addition, playing learning to know the limbs from the mirror is also fun. You point then say what part of the body clearly and slowly. For example "What is this? (while touching his eyes) This is the eye. "Although he was still in the stage of mumbling or bubble, he slowly learned to say a suffix, such as" ta "from" ma-ta ". Babies can also learn limbs and learn to talk.
Main "Plot Tent" (Ages 6-9 months)
Achievement of the constituency or permanent object of an object can be achieved in this age period. The purpose of constant is the understanding that objects actually exist even if they are not visible. Generally, babies will try to keep searching, finding hidden objects. Since he is learning to crawl, of course the baby will search by crawling. Let him crawl as he pleases. This activity can stimulate coordination of the left and right brain. Playing Cilukba, covering objects with a handkerchief, or hiding under a blanket can be a simple game that stimulates the baby's brain for understanding permanent objects.
In this age period an increase in mobility and introduction to the environment. He is increasingly active and tends to try to provide stimulus to others. For example, it begins to attract your attention by tugging at your clothes, reaching for and picking up things around it, or imitating your voice. He understood the situation he felt. If he feels like he is not getting your attention, he is immediately seeking attention! The idea is fantastic.
Utilizing this situation, you can invite him to play that stimulates his creativity and introduces simple commands. For example, asking him to arrange the blocks and then tearing them down, putting things in their place, or playing claps while singing. What kind of building does it make or what is the rhythm of the pat?
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Stimulation of Child's Brain Growth and Development
Stimulation is very helpful in stimulating the brain to produce hormones needed in its development. Stimulation can be given in various forms that are simple and easy to do. The stimulation can be in the form of warmth and sincere love given by parents. In addition, parents can provide direct experience using the five senses (sight, hearing, taste, touch, and smell). The interaction of children and parents through touch, hugging, smiling, singing, and listening attentively is also a form of early stimulation.
When a child who is unable to speak is babbling, babbling needs to get a response as a form of stimulation of the child's speech. Early on, parents should invite to talk in a soft voice and provide a sense of security to children.
When born, a child's brain already has billions of nerve cells, but that number is lost after birth. When the brain gets a new stimulus, the brain will learn something new. The stimulus will cause nerve cells to form a new connection to store information. Cells that are used to store information will expand, while those that are rarely or not used will be destroyed. This is where the importance of stimulation is routinely given. Stimulation that is continuously given routinely will strengthen the relationships between nerves that have formed so that the brain's function will automatically become better.
Stimulation given early will also affect the development of a child's brain. Early stimulation that starts at 6 months of gestation to 2-3 years old will produce changes in brain size and chemical function. Here are some tips from Dr. Soedjatmiko, SpA (K), MSi about early stimulation in toddlers:
- In providing early stimulation methods that can be used include listening, seeing, and imitating / trying
- The stimulated parts are right-left brain, sensory, motor, cognitive, communication-language, socio-emotional, independence, and creativity
- The way to do stimulation is to provide stimulation in the form of sound, music, movement, touch, talk, sing, read, match, compare, classify, solve problems, cross out, draw, arrange, etc.
- When doing stimulation is every time a parent interacts with children (breastfeeding, sleeping, bathing, changing clothes, playing, watching TV, etc.).
Basic principles in stimulating children
In stimulating the growth and development of children, there are some basic principles that need to be considered by educators, caregivers and parents, namely:
- Stimulation is done in the right ways according to the instructions of health workers who handle the field of child development.
- Stimulation is based on love and affection for children.
- Always show good behavior because children tend to imitate the behavior of those closest to them.
- Provide stimulation according to the age group of children.
- The world of children playing world, therefore do stimulation by inviting children to play, sing and other variations that are fun, without coercion and punishment.
- Perform stimulation gradually and continuously according to the child's age.
- Using tools / games that are simple, safe and are around us.
- Boys and girls are given equal opportunities.
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Stimulation to develop intelligence
a) Verbal Linguistic
- Often invited to talk
- Read the story over and over
- Excitatory retelling
- Don't cut the child's story
- Sing a song
- Discusses the contents of song poetry
b) Mathematical Logic
- Group objects, toys
- Arrange, arrange, count toys
- Playing numbers, halma, arrogant
- Playing abacus, cards, chess
- Guess what, puzzle
- Playing monopoly, computer
- Doing math tasks
c) Visual spatial
- Observe photos, pictures
- Stringing up, unpacking legos
- Cutting, folding, drawing
- Play house - rustic, puzzle, halma
- Playing computer
d) Bodywork skills
- Observe photos, pictures
- Stringing up, unpacking legos
- Cutting, folding, drawing
- Play house - rustic, puzzle, halma
- Playing computer
e) Musical intelligence
- Listen to music, various songs
- Sing a song
- Follow the beat and tone
- Playing music
f) Inter-personal emotional intelligence
- Play with younger & older children
- Share cakes, food, toys
- Succumbing, lending toys
- Working together to make something
- Self-control game
- Get to know various tribes, cultures, religions
g) Intra-personal emotional intelligence
- Tell the feeling
- Tells desires, ideals
- Tell the experience
- Imagining, making up stories
h) Naturalist intelligence
- Plant seeds until they grow
- Take care of plants, animals
- Travel to forests, mountains, rivers, beaches
- Observe the sky, moon clouds, stars
- Discuss natural events; rain, wind, earthquake, tsunami, day and night
i) Independence and creativity
- Democratic parents' attitude
- Encourage the courage to express yourself
- Encourage independence to do something & appreciate the business that has been achieved ORIGIN does not endanger yourself / others
- Give praise for the slightest achievement
- Don't reject the child's curiosity
- Stimulating observing, objects around us
- Let him fantasize, contemplate in their own way
- Don't dictate, criticize, criticize, etc.